What do grooves represent on a vinyl record

Any type of information or further observation, is very pleasing.

Record players and phonographs

Let's discuss! Last edited: Dec 21, Stefano G.

Coricama likes this. Taking into account this information, we can deduce that the famous Led Zeppelin II 1st USA press mastered by Robert Ludwig was characterized by a dynamic range too wide compared to what some turntables of that era could tolerate: in some models of turntables it seems that the "Hot Mix" did cause annoying skips. Evidently, the walls of the grooves had too large "steps"compared to those that some turntables could tolerate.

At this point, I think there is a myth to dispel: the one whereby the depth of the groove affects the quality of the sound. Based on what I have written before, in fact, the depth of the groove depends on the amount of sound information therein recorded: if groove's walls are high, evidently they have a pretty wide dynamic range and contain more sound information for cartridge. Thus, the depth of the groove depends on the type of sounds engraved therein. The depth of the grooves is very evident especially while brushing our records: records that have deep grooves dry before than records that have shallow grooves Location: Nottingham, UK.

My understanding was that information is encoded in both the vertical and horizontal planes. The phono stage sums these signals in one channel and subtracts them in the other: i. I'm pretty sure that mono LPs have information only in the horizontal axis: the vertical walls of the groove are unused. Therefore, if we play a mono LP with a stereo cartridge, the stereo cartridge will pick up vertical information as well, which is totally noise: this explains why we must always listen to a mono record using a mono cartridge or using a stereo cartridge but switching in mono our amplifier.

As for the stereo records, now I doubt if the grooves of stereo records also contain information on the horizontal axis as well as on the vertical one: I'm pretty sure that the two walls of a stereo grooves contain information for both channels left and right , but I'm not at all sure if the horizontal axis of a stereo groove contains information for cartridge; it would be interesting if some expert could answer this question, eventually stating what type of information is encoded in the horizontal axis of a stereo groove Last edited: Dec 22, So: indeed, on-line there is not very clear information especially for someone who is not a technical expert like me.

Anyway, I managed to find this information, hoping that they are as accurate as possible but I'm not sure The stereo cutter-head has two complete electromagnetic mechanisms arranged in such a way that they apply each channel of sound to a common stylus. Since the groove is V-shaped, it is possible to have two grooves in one, in effect: each wall of the "V" represents a different channel left and right and has a distinct wave pattern to be picked up by the stylus.

Stereophonic records should never be played on a monaural record player: damage can result, as a monaural stylus is not designed to pick up vertically-cut grooves. An expert is required to correct or to confirm The Compact Disc CD was introduced in It offered a recording that was, theoretically, completely noiseless and not audibly degraded by repeated playing or slight scuffs and scratches. At first, the much higher prices of CDs and CD players limited their target market to affluent early adopters and audiophiles.

But prices came down, and by CDs outsold LPs. The CD became the top-selling format, over cassettes, in Along with phonograph records in other formats, some of which were made of other materials, LPs are now widely referred to simply as " vinyl ". Since the late s there has been a renewed interest in vinyl [20].


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Soundtracks — played on records synchronized to movie projectors in theatres — could not fit onto the mere 5 minutes per side that 78s offered. When initially introduced, inch LPs played for a maximum of about 23 minutes per side, with inch around It wasn't until "microgroove" was developed by Columbia Records in that Long Players LPs reached their maximum playtime that has continued to modern times. Economics and tastes initially determined which kind of music was available on each format.

Recording company executives believed upscale classical music fans would be eager to hear a Beethoven symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over multiple, four-minute-per-side 78s, and that pop music fans, who were used to listening to one song at a time, would find the shorter time of the inch LP sufficient. As a result, the inch format was reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows.

Popular music continued to appear only on inch records. Their beliefs were wrong. By the mids, the inch LP, like its similarly sized 78 rpm cousin, would lose the format war and be discontinued. Ten-inch records briefly reappeared as Mini-LPs in the late s and early s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative. In , Columbia Records introduced "extended-play" LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side. The minute playing time remained rare, however, because of mastering limitations, and most LPs continued to be issued with a to minute playing time.

A small number of albums exceeded the minute limit.

Vinyl Record Cleaning Technical Detail – The Vinyl Record Cleaning Company

But these records had to be cut with much narrower spacing between the grooves, which allowed for a smaller dynamic range on the records, and meant that playing the record with a worn needle could damage the record. It also resulted in a much quieter sound. Spoken word and comedy albums require a smaller dynamic range compared to musical records. Therefore, they can be cut with narrower spaces between the grooves.

Turntables called record changers could play records stacked vertically on a spindle. This arrangement encouraged the production of multiple-record sets in automatic sequence. A two-record set had Side 1 and Side 4 on one record, and Side 2 and Side 3 on the other, so the first two sides could play in a changer without the listener's intervention. Then the stack was flipped over. Larger boxed sets used appropriate automatic sequencing 1—8, 2—7, 3—6, 4—5 to allow continuous playback, but this created difficulties when searching for an individual track. Vinyl records are vulnerable to dust, heat warping, scuffs, and scratches.

Dust in the groove is usually heard as noise and may be ground into the vinyl by the passing stylus, causing lasting damage. A warp can cause a regular "wow" or fluctuation of musical pitch, and if substantial it can make a record physically unplayable.

The groove

A scuff will be heard as a swishing sound. A scratch will create an audible tick or pop once each revolution when the stylus encounters it. A deep scratch can throw the stylus out of the groove; if it jumps to a place farther inward, part of the recording is skipped; if it jumps outward to a part of the groove it just finished playing, it can get stuck in an infinite loop , playing the same bit over and over until someone stops it.

This last type of mishap, which in the era of brittle shellac records was more commonly caused by a crack, spawned the simile "like a broken record" to refer to annoying and seemingly endless repetition. Records used in radio stations can suffer cue burn , which results from disc jockeys placing the needle at the beginning of a track, turning the record back and forth to find the exact start of the music, then backing up about a quarter turn, so that when it is released the music will start immediately after the fraction of a second needed for the disc to come up to full speed.

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When this is done repeatedly, the affected part of the groove is heavily worn and a hissing sound will be noticeable at the start of the track. The process of playing a vinyl record with a stylus is by its very nature to some degree a destructive process.

hukusyuu-mobile.com/wp-content/software/982-viber-spy.php Wear to either the stylus or the vinyl results in diminished sound quality. Record wear can be reduced to virtual insignificance, however, by the use of a high-quality, correctly adjusted turntable and tonearm, a high-compliance magnetic cartridge with a high-end stylus in good condition, and careful record handling, with non-abrasive removal of dust before playing and other cleaning if necessary.

The average tangential needle speed relative to the disc surface is approximately 1 mile per hour 1. It travels fastest on the outside edge, unlike audio CDs, which change their speed of rotation to provide constant linear velocity CLV. By contrast, CDs play from the inner radius outward, the reverse of phonograph records. The cutting stylus unavoidably transferred some of the subsequent groove wall's impulse signal into the previous groove wall.

It was discernible by some listeners throughout certain recordings but a quiet passage followed by a loud sound would allow anyone to hear a faint pre-echo of the loud sound occurring 1. Pre- and post-echo can be avoided by the use of direct metal mastering. The first LP records introduced used fixed pitch grooves just like their 78 predecessors. The use of magnetic tape for the production of the master recordings allowed the introduction of variable pitch grooves. The magnetic tape reproducer used to transfer the recording to the master disc was equipped with an auxiliary playback head positioned ahead of the main head by a distance equal to one revolution of the disc.

The sole purpose of this head was to monitor the amplitude of the recording. If the sound level from both the auxiliary and main magnetic heads was loud, the cutting head on the disc recording lathe was driven at its normal speed. However, if the sound level from both magnetic heads was quieter, then the disc cutting head could be driven at a lower speed reducing the groove pitch with no danger of the adjacent grooves colliding with each other. The playing time of the disc was therefore increased by an amount dependent on the duration of quieter passages.

The record manufacturers had also realised that by reducing the amplitude of the lower frequencies recorded in the groove, it was possible to decrease the spacing between the grooves and further increase the playing time.